The history of the Indian state Madhya Pradesh is divided into three periods
The area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti, whose capital Ujjain ( also known as Avanti ), after the death of Ashoka, the Mauryan Empire became weak and the region came under the rules of Sakas, Kushanas, Satavahana. The Satavahana Dynasty stands as a milestone in the ancient Madhya Pradesh At the end of 4th century the region came under the Gupta Empire into the political scenario and ruled over 150 years till the end of the 5th .
In the medieval history of Madhya Pradesh the kings and administrators that came into the power in Madhya Pradesh after the decline of the Gupta empire. In medieval Madhya Pradesh successors were weak. They showed little interest in the administration of their empire. Moreover, it can be said that history was sorrowed over the end of a golden era in India. The Gupta’s, indeed, transformed India into a ‘golden bird’. This is the rise of the Rajput dynasties in Madhya Pradesh. During the subsequent years the Paramaras and Chandelas constructing temples around this region.
Between the 12th and 16th centuries, the region saw continuing struggles between Hindu and Muslims rulers or invaders. Important independent regional kingdoms include Tomara Rajput kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim Sultanate of Malwa, with its capital at Mandu.
Books on the modern Madhya Pradesh reveal that Madhya Pradesh was a strong hold of the Mughal emperor Akbar from 1556 to 1605 AD. After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal decline and his successors failed. This is the time when Marathas control over the Mughals and established a semi-autonomous state between 1720 and 1760 AD. The Marathas came into an end in 1761 after the defeat in the battle of Panipat.
Between 18th and 19th centuries, Britishers was expanding its holdings in India from Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai; Most of Madhya Pradesh came under British Supremacy. In 1947, the former British Central Province was re-organized. Berar, Makrai and Chhattisgarh were culled from Madhya Pradesh, and were given a separate entity with Nagpur as their capital. In 1956, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh.
Till the year 2000 that Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India; but the Madhya Pradesh Reorganization Act was carved out the southern part of Madhya Pradesh , and the new state of Chhattisgarh came into existence.